Although the human race has managed to create some astounding things since we first started to walk the Earth, the one thing that is always been out of our control is the natural world. Nature which makes life possible on Earth can also take away lives and transform the world drastically. From earthquakes and volcanoes to violent storms and tidal waves, Mother Nature can often take a dark, devastating turn.
While some of the natural calamities do not make any significant effect on the human lives, some of them even have the power enough to wipe out civilization. The impact of a natural calamity depends on the size and location of the event. For example, if a natural disaster is taking place in a highly populated area then it will result in immediate damage to both lives as well as property.
Below are the ten most dangerous calamities in the world :
Though these may look exciting in the movies, the harsh reality is that avalanches are deadly natural phenomena. It can cause a tremendous amount of death and destruction. Avalanche or a snow slide occurs when accumulated snow dislodges and runs down a slope of a mountain. Earthquakes and the movements of animals can also cause an avalanche.
Alpine countries experience the highest number of avalanches in the world. A mechanical failure in the snow-pack typically triggers them. It accelerates more rapidly after initiating from the starting zone and grows in volume and mass as they enter into the snow. The fatal avalanche in history was the Huascaran Avalanche which happened in Peru in 1970.
Volcanoes are opening from the inner part of the earth to the surface from which hot lava, ashes, and poisonous gases emerge. It is the convergence of tectonic plates that lead to the formation of volcanoes.
When volcanoes erupt, they spit out ash and lava in staggering stages. Volcanic lava can reach temperatures of up to 1,200° C which has the power to cause massive devastation. The deadliest volcanic eruption was the Mount Tambora eruption in 1815. It had resulted in 71000 deaths.
Landslides mainly occur at hillside places. It is a geological activity that is caused by heavy rains, small earthquakes or volcano eruptions. Human activities like mining, quarrying, and construction in hilly areas are also contributing factors for landslides. Falling of rocks, movement of soil away from the actual foundation, cracking of ground and sudden decrease in groundwater level are indications of landslides.
The Vargas tragedy in Venezuela has been the most dangerous landslide noted in the history of the world. About 10 % of the Vargas population was killed by it.
Though tornadoes are not the most dangerous natural calamities in the world, it forms a vast strong wind in the upside down spinning form that can also destroy a lot of buildings. The hurricanes hold several shapes depending on the pressure of air. Usually, they appear in a condensed funnel shape. Thunderstorms mixing up of cold, moist air with hot air leads to the formation of tornadoes.
The most tornado-prone areas in the world include Oklahoma, North Texas, Kansas and Nebraska, which is also known as the Tornado Alley. These violent storms can cause harm to property and uproot trees.
Lightning is the natural flow of electricity through the air like a flash. It takes place due to the negative charges that settle down at the bottom of the cloud rub against the positive charge that causes lightning. In short, there is an electric charge in the cloud that causes lightning. It creates a giant spark that can be seen on earth. Since these sparks have a very high temperature that is up to 54000 degrees Fahrenheit, it has the power to destroy anything within no time.
Tsunami is the Japanese word for “harbor wave.” Tsunamis occur due to disturbances like earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in oceans. These tidal waves have long wavelengths and heights of hundreds of meters which can devastate the whole place. Coastal areas are mainly prone to tsunamis. Just before a tsunami occurs, the waves retrieve.
Tsunamis mostly affect the coastal regions, countries with massive coaster lines ( like Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Japan, and India) are more prone to such disasters. The deadliest tsunami in history was the tsunami that took place in the Indian Ocean in 2014. It smashed and devastated areas such as the Nicobar Islands, Burma, Indonesia and parts of Sri Lanka. The death toll was calculated to be about 280,000.
Hurricanes are otherwise known as typhoons or tropical cyclones. These are powerfully rotating storms that mainly hit tropical seas and then move towards land. They are characterized by heavy rainfalls, strong winds, spiral thunderstorms, etc.
One of the worst tropical cyclones is the mighty Bhola Cyclone of November 12, 1970. It wiped out tens of thousands of lives from Bangladesh. The 20-foot storm funneling right over the flat terrain caused extensive flooding.
Earthquakes are the most dangerous natural calamities ever faced by the human. The tectonic plates slide over each other as they keep moving. When the force while sliding these plates overcomes the friction, the energy gets released in the form of seismic waves which shake the outer world.
Thousands of earthquakes are taking place every day around the world. But since they are too small to be detected, humans do feel it. The Richter magnitude scale was created to measure the energy of an earthquake. The range goes from zero to ten. According to the recorded Richter scale values, the biggest shock took place in Valdivia (Chile) on May 22, 1960. It had a magnitude of 9.5.
Heavy rainfalls cause rivers to break their banks and lead to floods. Flooding is a significant problem in Asian countries. If you check the history, you will get to know that floods have killed a jaw-dropping number of people. The deadliest flood ever witnessed was the Yellow River flood in China in 1887. It killed nearly 2 million people.
Drought is known as an extended period of unusually dry weather due to lack of rain that causes a shortage of water. A drought can last for days, months or years. A drought mainly affects the farmers of a country. Drought causes dry weather which is not suitable for agriculture purposes, and hence it creates a worse impact on the plantation. Shortage of water can worsen the life of human beings, plants and as well as animals because all the creatures depend upon water.
Drought leads to famine (food and water shortage). They can also have a long-term impact on the environment, human life, economy and health of people.
Natural calamity is turned into a disaster due to rapid population growth, environmental pollution, an increase in poverty that causes enormous losses to human lives, infrastructure. It causes the death of a million people and leaves several million more homeless.Some of the examples are listed below that can help us in controlling the natural calamities:
! Carrying out some community or school activities about natural calamity issues with the participation of the vast mass.
! We should teach the people regarding the preventive measure to curb the effect of natural calamities.
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